John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley are widely known as the inventors of the transistor, a device that has greatly impacted the modern world and enabled a revolution in modern electronics since its inception in 1947. Today, the transistor is used in countless applications, from computers and smartphones to medical diagnostic equipment and beyond. While the transistor is a device that most of us take for granted, few are aware of the story of the invention of this revolutionary device and the three brilliant minds behind it.
This article will look at who the three inventors were and what they did to create the revolutionary transistor.
Who Were John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley?
John Bardeen was born in Madison, Wisconsin on May 23, 1908. Before his work on the transistor, he achieved a degree in electrical engineering from the University of Wisconsin and then went on to obtain a Ph.D. in Physics from Princeton University. During World War II, he served in the U.S. Army Signal Corps as an advisor.
Walter Brattain was born in Amoy, China, on February 10, 1902. He studied at Whitman College, where he graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree, and then received a Master of Science degree from the University of Minnesota in 1928 and a PhD from Princeton University in 1939. Like John Bardeen, Brattain worked in the U.S. Army Signal Corps during World War II.
William Shockley was born on February 13, 1910 in London, England. In 1936, he obtained a Ph.D. in Physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and immediately afterwards joined the prestigious Bell Laboratories. In 1940, Shockley took a leave of absence from Bell Labs and joined the Army Signal Corps to deploy radar during World War II.
The Invention of the Transistor
John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley are accredited with creating the world’s first transistor. The three inventors started their work at the Bell Laboratories in 1947 and continued for around two years. However, the background of the invention of the transistor had been laid down by previous inventors prior to the Bell Labs trio.
The story begins in 1920 when Lee De Forest created the Audion, the first three-element vacuum tube. This was a major development in electronics, as it was the first device that could amplify signals. From that point, other inventors continued to improve on the three-element vacuum tube, resulting in an increase in the level of amplification as well as better control of distortion.
However, these improvements were limited due to the bulky and expensive nature of the large vacuum tube. This fact motivated Shockley and his Bell Labs colleagues to pursue the invention of a smaller and less expensive amplifier.
The Crucial Contribution of the Three Inventors
John Bardeen and Walter Brattain were the two primary inventors of the transistor. Shockley had initially identified the physical phenomenon as the basis for a semiconductor amplifier. However, it was Bardeen and Brattain who actually built the first working device.
The method of manufacture developed by the two primary inventors was simple and elegant. It involved the creation of a three-layer semiconductor sandwich consisting of the substance germanium. The resulting device was capable of amplifying electrical signals and was much smaller, cheaper, and more reliable than the best existing vacuum tubes.
The result of the work of Bardeen, Brattain, and Shockley was the first transistor, which was successfully demonstrated on December 16, 1947. This marked a major milestone in the development of electronics as the transistor changed the way electronic components were designed and used.
The Nobel Prize
The revolutionary invention of the transistor by Bardeen, Brattain, and Shockley was significant enough to be recognized by the Nobel Prize committee. In December 1956, the Nobel Prize in Physics was jointly awarded to the three inventors for their invention of the transistor. John Bardeen, in particular, was honored with two Nobel Prizes in physics, first in 1956, and then again in 1972.
The Legacy and Impact of the Transistor
Since its invention in 1947, the transistor has revolutionized the world of electronics, paving the way for the modern computers and digital devices we use every day. Some of the main areas in which the transistor has had a positive impact include:
• Computer Technology: The transistor enabled a huge increase in the processing power of computers, allowing them to become smaller, faster, and more efficient.
• Consumer Electronics: The transistor has enabled the development of countless consumer electronics such as radios, TVs, and smartphones.
• Industrial Technology: The transistor is used in many industrial applications such as automotive control systems, robotics, and medical equipment.
• Military Technology: The transistor is used in many modern military applications such as communication systems and radar systems.
John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley are three of the most important inventors in the history of electronics. Their invention of the world’s first transistor changed the world of electronics forever, paving the way for the modern digital age we live in today. They were rewarded for their revolutionary work with a joint Nobel Prize in Physics in 1956, a fitting testament to their achievements. The transistor has revolutionized the world of electronics, enabling a vast range of applications in the fields of computing, consumer electronics, industrial technology, and military technology, among others. The world of electronics certainly owes a great debt of gratitude to the three inventors of the transistor.