What are Chameleons? 

Chameleons are distinctive, tropical lizards known for their ability to change color. Different species of chameleon are found in different parts of the world, most commonly in warm, humid climates. Chameleons are part of the suborder “iguania” and have many unique characteristics, including the ability to rotate their eyes independently, catch prey using their sticky tongues, and, most famously, to change color.

How Do Chameleons Change Color? 

The ability to change color has long been recognized as one of the main identifying features of chameleons. While many people think a chameleon’s color change is instantaneous, the truth is that it is a slow process which can take up to several hours to complete. So, how do chameleons change color?


One of the main components influencing a chameleon’s color change is melanin, the same pigment that influences human skin and hair color. Chameleons produce different amounts of melanin depending on their environment. They tend to produce more melanin when they’re stressed, excited, or trying to blend into their environment.


The other important factor influencing a chameleon’s ability to change color is light. Different wavelengths and intensities of light are absorbed by melanin which helps create the bright, vibrant colors that characterize chameleons.


Temperature also plays an important role in a chameleon’s ability to change color. Temperatures that are too high or too low can diminish a chameleon’s ability to effectively regulate pigment. Similarly, when a chameleon is stressed, their ability to regulate pigment is also impaired.

Visible Spectrum of Colors

Chameleons can change to any color in the visible spectrum, from blue to yellow to green and other mixtures in between. They tend to change color mostly as a form of camouflage, allowing them to blend into their environment in order to avoid predators.

Reasons For Color Change

Chameleons change color for a variety of reasons, including:

• Camouflage – Chameleons change color as a form of camouflage, allowing them to blend into their environment in order to avoid predators.

• Temperature Regulation – Chameleons may change to a darker color in order to absorb more heat and stay warm, or to a lighter one to stay cooler.

• Mood – Chameleons tend to be bright and colorful when happy or excited, and also when feeling stressed or threatened.

• Communicating with Other Chameleons – Different colors are used to communicate with other chameleons. A darker color may indicate breeding, for example, and lighter colors may be used to signal surrender or submission.

Adapting to Changes in the Environment 

Chameleons are able to adapt quickly to changes in their environment. This includes changes in temperature, humidity, light and other environmental factors. Their ability to change color helps them to stay hidden, maintain their temperature and communicate with other chameleons.


Chameleons’ ability to change color is determined by their genetics. Researchers have studied the genes involved in color-changing and have identified certain proteins that control the production of melanin.

Chameleons have long been admired for their unique ability to change color. While it is an impressive feat, it is not an instantaneous process. It is the result of melanin production and absorption of different wavelengths and intensities of light, and is influenced by the chameleon’s environment and genetics. As the environment changes, chameleons are able to quickly adapt by changing color. Chameleons use color change for a variety of reasons, most notably for camouflage, temperature regulation and communication.